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有聲雙語閱讀 | 魚兒生活在水里,那它們喝水嗎?

2019-07-08 08:58:01  每日學英語
魚

 

Fish live in water, but do they drink it?魚兒生活在水里,那么它們喝水嗎?

The answer is yes, but how fish drink water depends on where they live.

答案是肯定的,但是魚兒怎么喝水取決于它們生活在哪。

Water gets into a fish's body through osmosis, the process in which water diffuses from a higher to a lower concentration.

水通過滲透作用進入魚的身體,也就是水從高處向低處的流動的過程。

For example, if there is more water outside of a cell than inside, water will try to flow into the cell until there is the same concentration of water on either side of the cell's membrane.

比如,如果某個細胞外面的水比細胞內的水多,水就會從外面流入細胞中,直至細胞內外的水達到同一濃度為止。

The body of a fish acts the same way, either absorbing or losing water depending on its surroundings.

魚體內的水也以相同的方式運動,水分的吸收或者散發取決于周圍的環境。

Whether a fish absorbs or loses water is based on the fact that all fish must maintain a certain amount of salt in their bodies to stay healthy.

魚是否吸收、釋放水分取決于其必須確保機體內的鹽分含量。

Fish that live in fresh water have a higher concentration of salt in their bodies than the surrounding water. Consequently, water continuously flows into the fish's body to attempt to dilute the amount of salt in the fish until it is equal to the amount of salt in the surrounding water.

淡水魚體內的鹽分含量要比它生活的淡水的鹽分含量高,所以水會自然的進入魚的體內以稀釋其體內的鹽的含量,直到魚體內鹽的含量與它生活的水域的鹽含量相當。

Since fish cannot allow their salt content to be diminished, their kidneys work overtime to expel excess water in the form of urine.

因為魚類不能讓體內的鹽份流失,它們的腎臟會不停地工作以排尿的方式排除體內多余水份。

Ocean fish have the opposite problem. Surrounded by salt water, their bodies contain a relatively lower concentration of salt than the ocean water.

海水魚的問題正相反。因為被鹽水包圍,所以它們體內鹽的含量相對來說比周圍的海水低。

In this case osmosis causes the fish to constantly lose water in order to equalize salt concentration inside and outside the fish.

這樣,滲透作用就使魚經常釋放水分以保證身體內外鹽的濃度相等。

To partially compensate for the water loss, ocean fish actually drink water through their mouths. And to get rid of the excess salt they take in by drinking seawater, they excrete some salt through cells in their gills.

為了補償這種水分的散發,海水魚就常常需要通過吐泡泡來攝入水并排出它們所喝的水中多余的鹽分,它們通過鰓里面的一些細胞來排出鹽分。

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