英語閱讀 學英語,練聽力,上聽力課堂! 注冊 登錄
> 輕松閱讀 > 閱讀經驗 >  內容

03 不同類型文章的閱讀技巧

所屬教程:閱讀經驗

瀏覽:

qinting

2019年06月18日

手機版
掃描二維碼方便學習和分享

03 不同類型文章的閱讀技巧

文章的結構特點會根據文章的體裁不同而有所變化。因此,為了更好地獲取信息,我們有必要對不同的體裁進行學習,掌握其中的結構特點,以方便我們有效地獲取目標信息。我們在平時的閱讀經歷中,最常見到的是記敘文、說明文和議論文。

記敘文

記敘文通常講述某個人的經歷或者某件重大生活事件,對于事件的陳述一般是由時間概念連接起來的。但是在我們做閱讀題的時候,記敘文并不是單純的以時間為軸,而是中間會夾雜著議論文字。這樣的記敘文其一般模式為:

1.概括陳述即將要敘述的事件。

2.陳述以前的事件以及對這一事件的看法。

3.陳述之后的事件以及對事件的看法。

4.總結全文。

舉個例子來說:

某篇閱讀理解題的結構就是這樣的。

For example

1.概括性陳述

Engineering students are supposed to be example of practicality and rationality, but when it comes to my college education I am an idealist and a fool.

2.之前的事件和看法

In high school I wanted to be…, but I didn't choose a college with a large engineering department.

3.之后的事件

I chose to study engineering at a small liberal-arts university for a broad education.

4.接下來發生的事件

I headed off for sure that I was going to have an advantage over others.

5.再之后發生的事件

Now I am not so sure…I have learned the reasons why few engineering students try to reconcile engineering with liberal-arts courses in college.

6.總結全文

I have realized that the struggle to reconcile the study of engineering and liberal-arts is difficult.

只要我們理解了記敘文的結構特點,在解答這樣的問題時就會非常得心應手。這樣的試題一般是根據文章的發展脈絡來出題的。

說明文

說明文是一種通過闡述的方式將知識或者道理傳達給讀者的體裁。說明文的說明順序一般有:時間順序、空間順序和邏輯順序。

1.從整體入手,明確說明對象。我們可以通過快速查看文章題目和每個段落的主題句來把握說明對象。段落主題句一般出現在段首或者段尾。

2.將每一段的要點概括出來,然后弄清楚說明的順序。如果文章的段落很多,我們要使用“同類合并”的方法,將文章分為幾大部分,然后把每一部分的大概意思歸納出來,這樣我們就能弄清楚文章的說明順序了。

3.整體把握中心思想。我們需要分析這幾大部分之間的結構關系和邏輯,它們是并列的、遞進的還是總分關系?是形式與內容的關系、普遍與特殊的關系還是結果與原因的關系?我們要試著畫出結構示意圖,這樣能更好地幫助我們理清文章的結構,把握中心思想。

For example

Priscilla Ouchida's “energy-efficient” house turned out to be a horrible dream.When she and her engineer husband married a few years ago, they built a $100,000, three-bedroom home in California.Tightly sealed to prevent air leaks, the house was equipped with small double-paned (雙層玻璃的) windows and several other energy-saving features.Problems began as soon as the couple moved in, however.Priscilla's eyes burned.Her throat was constantly dry.She suffered from headaches and could hardly sleep.It was as though she had suddenly developed a strange illness.

Experts finally traced the cause of her illness.The level of formaldehyde ( 甲醛) gas in her kitchen was twice the maximum allowed by federal standards for chemical workers.The source of the gas? Her new kitchen cabinets and wall-to-wall carpeting.

The Ouchidas are victims of indoor air pollution, which is not given sufficient attention partly because of the nation's drive to save energy.The problem itself isn't new.“The indoor environment was dirty long before energy conservation came along,”says Moschandreas, a pollution scientist at Geomet Technologies in Maryland.“Energy conservation has tended to accentuate the situation in some cases.”

The problem appears to be more troublesome in newly constructed homes rather than old ones.Back in the days when energy was cheap, home builders didn't worry much about unsealed cracks.Because of such leaks, the air in an average home was replaced by fresh outdoor air about once an hour.As a result, the pollutants generated in most households seldom built up to dangerous levels.

上面是一篇說明文的結構模式,這篇文章按照“提出問題——闡述直接原因——闡述深層原因——得出結論”的結構來展開文章,其邏輯關系是因果關系,結構為總分結構。

了解了這種類型的文章的結構模式,我們就可以按照這樣的模式來判斷更多的類似的閱讀題目。

議論文

議論文最常見的模式是假設——真實型,也就是“主張——反主張”模式,即先提出一種主張,最后表達自己的觀點或者反對這種主張。

我們在閱讀議論文時要注意以下四個方面:

1.找準文章的論點論據,并且要明確文章的論證方法。

2.在閱讀時要特別注意反駁主張的內容。

3.在論證中,往往會出現一些轉換信號詞,它們用于表示因果、遞進或者轉折等關系。

4.我們還要注意一些帶有感情色彩的詞語,因為其中往往包含著作者的觀點傾向。

在考題中,議論文的主要題型是作者觀點態度題,文章中心思想題和細節題。尤其是作者的態度觀點,我們要根據議論文的結構特點來分析。

For example

大學英語四級考試中某篇閱讀理解題開始就提出一種觀點:High school English teachers are not doing their jobs.支持這一觀點的理由是:His students has a bad command of English.作者對此提出了反對的主張:

(1) It is inevitable for one generation to complain the one immediately following it.And it is human nature to look for reasons for our dissatisfaction.

(2) The people who criticize the high school teachers are not aware that their language ability has developed through the years.

作者最后得出自己的結論:The concern about the decline and fall of the English language is a generation, and is not new and peculiar to taday's young people.

掌握了“主張——反主張”這一結構特點以后,我們就可以有的放矢地尋找問題的答案,更清楚地了解文章的脈絡。

相信大家已經掌握了各種體裁的結構特點,那么,大家就準備好享受一番閱讀的饕餮盛宴吧!


內容來自 聽力課堂網:http://www.fpiumv.live/show-7809-448193-1.html
用手機學英語,請加聽力課堂
微信公眾號:tingclass123
用戶搜索

瘋狂英語 英語語法 新概念英語 走遍美國 四級聽力 英語音標 英語入門 發音 美語 四級 新東方 七年級 賴世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 頻道推薦
  • |
  • 全站推薦
  • 廣播聽力
  • |
  • 推薦下載
  • 網站推薦
篮球让分胜负什么意思