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Listen To This3lesson 32

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News in Brief



News Item 1:
1. General Comprehension. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete the following statement.
The United States wanted to ___________ its diplomatic expulsion war with __________.
a. continue; the Soviet Union
b. stop; the Soviet Union
c. continue; Nicaragua
d. stop; Nicaragua

2. True or False Questions.
(1) Charles Redman is the Assistant Secretary in the State Department.
(2) Charles Redman said that if the Soviets put restrictions on American workers in Moscow, the American government would set similar limits on Soviet workers in the United States.
(3) Charles Redman said he was not happy with the latest Soviet expulsion order, but warned the Soviet Union against any further steps in this expulsion war.
(4) Redman said the two governments should sit down and talk about how the two countries could cooperate to explore the space rather than having diplomatic expulsion war.
(5) This statement was made only two weeks after the summit in Iceland.

News Item 2:


1. General Comprehension. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete each of the following statements.
(1) President Reagan left Washington D.C. _____________.
a. for a campaign trip
b. for a holiday trip
c. for the summit in Iceland
d. for Geneva
(2) President Reagan's trip would last ____________ day(s).
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four

2. Identification. Write out the names of three people related to each position.
(1) Republican Senator of Wisconsin ??
(2) Former Chief of NFLPU ??
(3) Reporter of WUWM in Milwaukee ??

3. Choose the answer (a, b, c, or d) that will make the statement contrary to what you have heard on the tape.
(1) President Reagan will ____________.
a. have his first stop in Wisconsin
b. help Robert Castan in Wisconsin
c. assist Democrat campaign for re-election in Milwaukee
d. support Republican candidates
(2) Robert Castan will _____________.
a. run as Republican Senate candidate
b. probably win the re-election on November 4
c. get support from President Reagan
d. definitely be defeated by Edward Garvey in the re-election race
(3) President Reagan asked the people to vote Bob Castan for ____________.
a. his own re-election as president
b. Wisconsin
c. the voters themselves
d. the United States

4. True or False Questions.
(1) President Reagan made his speech at a Republican rally in Wisconsin.
(2) President Reagan wanted the people to vote for Bob Caston, because in this way Bob could help President Reagan in his next term.

News Item 3:


1. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete each of the following statements.
(1) _____________ prepared to ask to end up the case by sending the captured pilot to prison for ____________ years.
a. Eugene Hasenfus; thirteen
b. The lawyer for Eugene Hasenfus; thirteen
c. Eugene Hasenfus; thirty
d. The lawyer for Eugene Hasenfus; thirty
(2) Eugene Hasenfus is charged with ______________.
a. taking part in an anti-government rebellion
b. committing a terrorist act and violating Nicaraguan security
c. violating Nicaraguan constitution
d. carrying supplies for the contra rebels who are fighting against Nicaraguan government in neighboring countries
(3) Griffen Bell is ____________.
a. former US Chief Justice
b. former US Attorney General
c. the representative of the US State Department
d. Hasenfus' attorney appointed by Nicaraguan government
(4) Hasenfus met for ____________ with his Nicaraguan attorney.
a. two hours today
b. two hours yesterday
c. four hours today
d. one hour yesterday

2. Dictation. Listen to this news item twice and write down everything you hear on the tape.

News in Detail



1. True or False Questions.
(1) For the past few weeks, the United States and the Soviet Union have been expelling each other's diplomats almost everyday.
(2) The Soviet Union ordered the expulsion of five Americans yesterday. In retaliation the United States ordered out the equal number of Soviet diplomats today.
(3) State Department spokesman Charles Redman focused on the most positive aspects of the retaliations and said both countries should carry them on.
(4) The withdrawal of Soviet citizens working for American Embassy in Moscow and the Consulate in Leningrad will put the American diplomats in the Soviet Union into difficult conditions.
(5) The United States used to have two hundred fifty-one staff members in the Soviet Union, but recently the number was increased because the US government foresaw the possibility of the diplomatic expulsion war.
(6) The United States believed that it has won in the expulsion war because the Soviets are left with a substantially smaller presence in the United States, which will make it much easier to clamp down on Soviet intelligence activities.

2. Fill in the blanks and find out what the United States and the Soviet Union have done to each other in the diplomatic expulsion war.
(1) The United States:
  a. On the United States ordered out Soviet .
  b. It also expelled Soviet to equal the number of now stationed .
  c. In September Soviets were expelled from .
(2) The Soviet Union:
  a. Last , the Soviet Union expelled American .
  b. Yesterday the Soviets all the Soviet citizens working for and , a total of . These people worked as , , , and in .
  c. Yesterday the Soviets in their last retaliation ordered the of more Americans.

3. Fill in the blanks to complete the following statements.
(1) When the US called a truce today the US government would limit given to the of the Soviet Union.
(2) According to Redman, the most positive aspects of the retaliations was as of the consequences of this diplomatic expulsion.
(3) One of the consequences of this diplomatic expulsion war is some fairly in the pattern of US personnel in the Soviet Union, as the US Embassy in Moscow and the Consulate in Leningrad need people to performed by others.
(4) The significance of the reduction of Soviet diplomatic personnel in the United States: it is a that eliminated here and means in the United States.
(5) Explanation for the recent expansion of American staff in the Soviet Union: some US officials (denied/admitted) that the US government did this in anticipation of the expulsion war, but they said it would make for US diplomats in the Soviet Union.

4. Spot Dictation. Listen to the tape again and fill in the following blanks.
    So as the dust settles, the Soviets are left with in the United States, which administration officials say to clamp down on . But the administration, which has placed , if , with the Soviets, found this week that is . US officials concerned with Soviet think more difficult conditions for in exchange for for Soviet here is worth it.

Special Report



1. Choose the best answer (a, b, c, or d) to complete each of the following statements.
(1) ____________ always ask and answer questions like, "What is matter, or time, or cause and effect?"
a. Philosophers and economists
b. Philosophers and scientists
c. Scientists and psychologists
d. Scientists and Buddhists
(2) Over the weekend, a Nature of Reality Conference was held at _____________.
a. University of California at Berkeley
b. the Elmwood Institute at Berkeley
c. Colorado State University
d. State University on New York
(3) At the conference issues under discussion included _____________.
a. Einstein's theory of relativity
b. quantum theory and relativity
c. the new physics and discoveries in atomic science
d. quantum theory, relativity and the new physics, discoveries in atomic science
(4) Fritchoff Kapra was ____________ at the conference.
a. a speaker
b. chairman
c. an organizer
d. a reporter
(5) Kapra's book, The Tao of Physics, linked _______________.
a. the theory of relativity with ancient eastern philosophies
b. the findings of modern science with ancient western philosophies
c. the theory of gravity with eastern philosophies
d. the findings of modern science with ancient eastern philosophies

2. Fill in the blanks so as to provide an outline for Kapra's talk.
(1) The new world view is emerging not only in , but also in other sciences, in , in , in the sciences.
  a. Its time of emergence: in the years
  b. Its source of emergence:
  c. Example One:
    In physics, an electron now is not considered as an . It cannot be said to exist even in at . It's sort of .
  d. Example Two:
    In medicine, the human body used to be viewed as in conventional western medicine, in fact, as . And when doesn't function, you look for and replace that part by which includes or . The new kind of view sees the human organism as which has , , but also and which is imbedded in and in .
(2) Examples of the new world view:
  a. The central development in quantum theory was .
  b. A very dramatic development was Einstein's discovery that .
(3) Public response to the new world view is utter fascination, and the reason for this kind of response is that people are by between , between , between .

1. Wisconsin

    North central state of the United States, a high plain sloping from the Great Lakes in the east to the Mississippi. There are dense forests, especially in the north; and in the south there is prairie land. Wisconsin is the premier dairy state of the country. 

2. Milwaukee 

    Largest city in Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan, 135 miles north of Chicago. With a fine harbor, it is a great grain and coal-distributing port. Heavy machinery of many kinds is manufactured, and brewing and meat packing are important. 

3. GOP rally 

    GOP stands for "Grand Old Party" which refers to the Republican Party in the United States. A GOP rally is a Republican Party Convention. 

4. Attorney General

    In the United States, the Attorney General, a member of the cabinet and appointed by the president, is the chief law officer of the government and head of the Department of Justice. 

5. Managua

    Capital of Nicaragua, situated on the lake of the same name. It was destroyed by earthquake in 1931 and again in 1972, but was rebuilt later.

1. Quantum Theory

    In physics, a theory advanced by Max Planck in 1900 to account for the phenomena of the distribution of the radiant energy from a "black body" between the various wavelengths in the spectrum of the radiation. The development of modern physics and its applications particularly in nuclear power and electronics is largely based on the Quantum Theory and developments from it.

2. Colorado
    One of the mountain states of the United States, west of the Mississippi basin in the Rocky Mountains. The eastern half is mainly rolling plains, but the west is mountainous with numerous peaks of more than 4,250 meters. The largest river is the Colorado. The state motto is "nothing without Providence."

3. Rene Descartes
    French philosopher (1596??1650). Settled in Holland in 1628 and died at Stockholm. He is regarded as the discoverer of analytical geometry and the founder of the science of optics. His famous saying is "I think, therefore I am," and his philosophy is dualism.

4. Berkeley
 

    On San Francisco Bay in California. It is the seat of the University of California, Berkeley, famous particularly for its atom research.

The United States declared a truce today in its diplomatic expulsion war with the Soviet Union. State Department spokesman Charles Redman said, "We hope this set of issues can now be put behind us." Redman did say that any restrictions placed on temporary American workers in Moscow would be matched by limits on Soviet workers here. He condemned the latest Soviet expulsion order, but said it's time the two governments moved on to arms control and other issues taken up by President Reagan and Soviet leader Gorbachev at their meetings in Iceland two weeks ago.


President Reagan left the White House today for a two-day campaign trip. The President hopes to boost Republican Senate candidates and his first stop was in Wisconsin, where he appeared on behalf of freshman Senator Robert Castan. Mark Levine of member station WUWM reports from Milwaukee. "President Reagan came here to endorse Senator Castan who's in a close re-election race against Democrat Edward Garvey, the former chief of the National Football League Players' Union. In his speech at a GOP rally, Mr. Reagan said his name will never be on the ballot again. 'So if you want to vote for me, vote for Bob Castan, so that we can have a Republican Senate that will work with me instead of against me and be around after I'm gone. But I'm not, I'm not just asking that for me. Do it for yourself. Do it for Wisconsin. Do it for America.' Recent polls showed Senator Castan narrowly leading Garvey. Republicans here believe the President's appearance will help Castan win re-election on November 4th. For National Public Radio, this is Mark Levine in Milwaukee."


The lawyer representing Eugene Hasenfus prepared today to enter a plea to charges that could send the captured flier to prison for thirty years. Hasenfus is accused of committing a terrorist act and violating Nicaraguan security by taking part in a contra supply mission. Former US Attorney-Griffen Bell is expected to arrive today in Managua to aid in Hasenfus defense. Hasenfus met for two hours today with his Nicaraguan attorney.


For the past few weeks, the United States and the Soviet Union have been expelling each other's diplomats almost on a daily basis. Today, the US called a truce. NPR's Jim Angle reports.
The United States called a halt today to week-long retaliatory exchange with the Soviet Union, leaving both sides searching for ways to deal with new restrictions on their respective diplomatic mission. The tit-for-tat retaliations ended abruptly as the State Department announced that it would match some minor restrictions by the Soviets on the number of visas given for temporary personnel. But the administration did not expel any more Soviet diplomats, even though the Soviets in their last retaliation yesterday ordered the expulsion of five more Americans. State Department spokesman Charles Redman made clear that as far as the US is concerned, the matter is over.
"This is our response. We hope that this set of issues can now be put behind us."
Redman emphasized the most positive aspects of the retaliations and then sought to shift the focus of US-Soviet relations to more productive matters.
"There seems to be common ground in the mutual acknowledgement of parity and reciprocity as the foundation of our diplomatic relationship. We need now to get on with resolution of the larger issues affecting US-Soviet relations and build on the progress made in the discussions at Reykjavik."
The common ground on reciprocity went a good bit further than the US hoped. The administration, responding to an expulsion of five Americans last Sunday, ordered out an equal number of Soviet diplomats on Tuesday. And at the same time, the US said that it was permanently reducing the size of the staff at the Soviet Embassy and Consulate in the US to equal the number of Americans now stationed in the Soviet Union. And the administration expelled fifty Soviet diplomats to get the Soviet Union down to that level immediately. American officials said all fifty-five Soviets expelled this week were spies, the same allegation the US made against the twenty-five Soviets it expelled from their UN mission in September. The Soviets retaliated yesterday in a way that left the US no corresponding action to take. They withdrew all the Soviet citizens working for the US Embassy in Moscow and the Consulate in Leningrad, a total, the Soviets said, of two hundred sixty. Those people are the maids, cooks, drivers, mechanics and translators for the Embassy staff in the Soviet Union. The Soviets, by contrast, rely almost exclusively on Soviet citizens assigned to the US for the same kind of work. State Department spokesman Redman acknowledged the Soviet action will make things more difficult for our diplomats in the Soviet Union.
"We expect that there will have to be some fairly substantial changes in our staffing patterns, as we need personnel to take up the tasks previously performed by others. And there will undoubtedly be some short-term adjustment problems. And over the long term we will have a different look in Moscow."
The administration wanted to force a different look on the Soviet presence in the United States as well. Officials yesterday said the US expulsions had decapitated Soviet intelligence in the United States. Said one official, "It was a crushing blow that eliminated the top leadership of Soviet intelligence here and means the end of an era for Soviet intelligence in the United States," Officials said reduction in Soviet diplomatic staff would also reduce the overall Soviet intelligence presence in the United States. And they said it would create dissension between the Soviet diplomatic ranks and the intelligence services as they compete for a shrinking number of positions in the US. But the Soviets showed yesterday they could force some equally difficult choices on the Americans. The administration must now decide, for instance, whether it must displace some diplomats or intelligence officers in order to make room for maids and mechanics, jobs that were previously held by Soviets. Now they must be done by Americans who count toward the overall total of official Americans permitted to serve in the USSR. Charles Redman conceded that will have some impact on the US ability to keep track of things there.
"Without question, there's going to be some change in our ability to monitor what happens in the Soviet Union. This is something that we foresaw as we went into this. As a consequence, we're prepared to cope with it."
Other officials said yesterday the US Embassy in Moscow is now larger than it has ever been. "Historically," said one official, "the US staff in the Soviet Union has been somewhere between one hundred seventy-five and two hundred, but for a number of reasons," the official said, "it had grown recently to two hundred fifty-one." Sources denied that it was in anticipation of this week's events, but suggested it will make the adjustment a little easier. So as the dust settles, the Soviets are left with a substantially smaller presence in the United States, which administration officials say will make it a little easier to clamp down on Soviet intelligence activities. But the administration, which has placed great value on being firm, if not tough, with the Soviets, found this week that is a two-way street. US officials concerned with monitoring and combating Soviet intelligence activities think the trade-off of more difficult conditions for American diplomats in exchange for a more hostile environment for Soviet intelligence here is worth it. But it remains to be seen if the Soviet retaliation will have an equal impact on the United States. I'm Jim Angle in Washington.


Who am I really? What is reality for that matter? In fact, what is matter, or time, or cause and effect? These are old questions asked and answered again and again by philosophers and scientists. They were still asking them over the weekend at a Nature of Reality Conference at Colorado State University. They talked about quantum theory, relativity and the new physics, discoveries in atomic science that cast new light on old questions or maybe just add to the list. One speaker was Fritchoff Kapra. A few year ago he wrote The Tao of Physics , a book which linked the findings of modern science with ancient eastern philosophies. It set off a wave of interest in how our most common notions about reality break down in the world of the very small.
"Let's talk about an electron which is sort of, you know, the smallest entity we know. And we have the tendency of picturing it somewhat like a grain of sand. Well, this is very wrong. It's not an isolated entity. It's not a grain of sand. It cannot be said to exist even in a certain place at a definite time. It's a sort of, you know, very nebulous entity seemingly which requires a whole new set of concepts and ideas to be described. What emerged in the last fifteen years is that the new world view that came out of modern physics is in fact not limited to physics, but is emerging now also in the other sciences, in biology, in psychology, in the social sciences. And it is best, it is best described by calling it a systems view."
"Could you give us an example?"
"Let's talk about medicine, for instance. Conventional Western medicine is based on Descartes' view of the human body as a machine, in fact, as a clock-work. And when a clock doesn't function, you look for the single part that has broken down and you, by an act of intervention, you replace that part. This is what doctors do now, in terms of physical intervention through surgery or chemical intervention through drugs. The new kind of view would be seeing the human organism as an integrated whole which has physical aspects, biological aspects, but also psychological aspects and which is imbedded in a natural environment and in a social and emotional environment."
"Now going back to physics for one minute, what do we see on the atomic level that gets us to that same place?"
"Nothing. Physics cannot be used as the basis for the new world view. You cannot understand a living organism in terms of physics alone. Of course, it does satisfy the laws of physics, because it is also, you know, made of physical constituents like molecules and atoms. But in order to understand life, and therefore in order to understand health, you have to have a broader framework."
"Could you give just a couple of examples?"
"The shift from the part to the whole was maybe the central development in quantum theory when physicists recognized that subatomic particles cannot be seen as isolated entities, but rather have to be seen as interconnections in a web of relationships. The other one, a very dramatic development, was Einstein's discovery that mass is nothing but a form of energy. Mass does not measure a certain material substance but measures activity or process, and therefore a very dramatic shift from thinking in terms of substance and structure to thinking in terms of process."
"It seems to me that there are hundreds, thousand, tens of thousands of people on college campuses, going to conferences who are utterly fascinated by implications of some connection between the way we view the cosmos, between philosophy, between religion and physics. But most of these people and most of their ideas in the mainstream society are considered somewhat on the fringe. Why is that?"
"Einstein was very much considered on the fringe. Beethoven was considered on the fringe. Mozart was considered on the fringe. This always happens with new creative ideas, and the world view that emerged from modern physics is really something radically new and is something very disturbing."
"What is the thought that is most uncomfortable?"
"Even more disturbing to physicists than to people outside of science is the fact that there are no well defined isolated objects, that we are all imbedded in a network of relationships where what you call an object depends very much how you look at it. Furthermore, that this network is not static, but is in continual process. So it is the relativity and the impermanence of existence. Now this is very disturbing, because it leads you to recognize the impermanence of your own existence, the illusion that we are a well defined, you know, isolated self that we have a well defined, isolated ego. And this is very disturbing to many people. It is not disturbing to people typically in spiritual traditions. To Buddhists, for instance, this is the very foundation of Buddhist thinking and Buddhist living. But to most Westerners, it is extremely disturbing."
Physicist Firtchoff Kapra heads the Elmwood Institute in Berkeley, California.
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