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冠狀病毒來臨之際:你需要知道什么

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tianxiaoyu

2020年01月22日

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Coronavirus time: what do you need to know

冠狀病毒來臨之際:你需要知道什么

A new Chinese coronavirus, a cousin of the SARS virus, has infected more than 200 people since the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December. Scientist Leo Poon, who first decoded the virus, thinks it likely started in an animal and spread to humans.

中國一種新的冠狀病毒與SARS病毒是同一個科,自去年12月在中國武漢爆發以來,已經感染了200多人??茖W家李波是第一個破譯病毒的人,他認為病毒可能是從動物身上開始傳播到人類身上的。

"What we know is it causes pneumonia and then doesn't respond to antibiotic treatment, which is not surprising, but then in terms of mortality, SARS kills 10% of the individuals," Poon, a virologist at the School of Public Health at The University of Hong Kong, said.

香港大學公共衛生學院病毒學家波說:“我們所知道的是,非典會導致肺炎,然后對抗生素治療沒有反應,這并不奇怪,但就死亡率而言,SARS導致10%的個人死亡。”

The World Health Organization offered guidance to countries on how they can prepare for it, including how to monitor for the sick and how to treat patients.

世界衛生組織向各國提供了如何做好準備的指導,包括如何監測病人和如何治療病人。

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Here are several things you should know about a coronavirus.

下面是關于冠狀病毒你應該知道的幾件事。

What is a coronavirus

什么是冠狀病毒

Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can be transmitted from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

冠狀病毒是一種常見的動物病毒。據美國疾病控制與預防中心稱,在極少數情況下,它們是科學家所說的人畜共患疾病,這意味著它們可以從動物傳染給人類。

Coronavirus symptoms

冠狀病毒癥狀

The viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness, similar to a common cold. Coronavirus symptoms include a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache and maybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days.

這些病毒可以使人生病,通常是輕度到中度上呼吸道疾病,類似于普通感冒。冠狀病毒的癥狀包括流鼻涕,咳嗽,喉嚨痛,可能是頭痛,也可能是發燒,這些癥狀會持續幾天。

For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia or bronchitis.

對于那些免疫系統較弱的人,老年人和幼兒,這種病毒有可能導致更嚴重的呼吸道疾病,如肺炎或支氣管炎。

There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly.

已知有幾種人類冠狀病毒是致命的。

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, also known as the MERS virus, was first reported in the Middle East in 2012 and also causes respiratory problems, but those symptoms are much more severe. Three to four out of every 10 patients infected with MERS died, according to the CDC.

中東呼吸綜合征(簡稱MERS病毒)于2012年在中東首次被發現,它也會導致呼吸系統疾病,但這些癥狀要嚴重得多。美國疾病控制與預防中心的數據顯示,每10名MERS患者中就有3至4人死亡。

How it spreads

它是如何傳播的

Viruses can spread from human contact with animals. Scientists think MERS started in camels, according to the WHO. With SARS, scientists suspected civet cats were to blame.

病毒可通過與動物接觸而傳播。據世界衛生組織稱,科學家認為MERS起源于駱駝。至于非典,科學家懷疑是麝香貓造成的。

When it comes to human-to-human transmission of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with the infected person's secretions.

當病毒在人與人之間傳播時,通常是當人接觸到感染者的分泌物時。

冠狀病毒來臨之際:你需要知道什么

Coronavirus treatment

冠狀病毒的治療

There is no specific treatment. Most of the time, symptoms will go away on their own.

沒有特定的治療方法。大多數情況下,癥狀會自行消失。

Doctors can relieve symptoms by prescribing a pain or fever medication. The CDC says a room humidifier or a hot shower can help with a sore throat or cough.

醫生可以通過開痛或發燒藥物來緩解癥狀。疾控中心說,一個房間的加濕器或熱水澡可以幫助喉嚨痛或咳嗽。

Drink plenty of fluids, get rest and sleep as much as possible.

多喝水,盡量休息和睡眠。

If symptoms feel worse than a standard cold, see your doctor.

如果癥狀比普通感冒更嚴重,就去看醫生。

How can you can prevent it

你怎樣才能預防它呢

There is no vaccine to protect against this family of viruses, at least not yet. Trials for a MERS vaccine are underway.

目前還沒有針對這類病毒的疫苗,至少目前還沒有。中東呼吸綜合征疫苗的試驗正在進行中。

You may be able to reduce your risk of infection by avoiding people who are sick. Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Wash your hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.

你可以通過避免接觸病人來降低感染的風險。盡量避免觸摸眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴。經常用肥皂和水洗手,至少20秒。

Coronavirus and pregnancy

冠狀病毒和懷孕

In pregnant women, the more severe versions of MERS and SARS coronaviruses can be serious. There are cases in which a woman infected with MERS had a stillbirth, a 2014 study showed.

在孕婦中,更嚴重的中東呼吸綜合征和SARS冠狀病毒可能是嚴重的。2014年的一項研究顯示,在一些病例中,一名感染了中東呼吸綜合征的婦女曾死于難產。


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